And he captured the story of a man that—like the stories of so many other young black men—would otherwise be lost. But by telling his story, Hughes forces us to wonder. I had once a short but memorable experience with a fugitive from a chain gang in this very same Georgia of which [John L. I had been lecturing on my poetry at some of the Negro universities of the South and, with a friend, I was driving North again in a small automobile. All day since sunrise we had been bumping over the hard red clay roads characteristic of the backward sections of the South.
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We had passed two chain gangs that day This sight was common. By in Georgia alone, more than 8, prisoners, mostly black men, toiled on chain gangs in counties. The punishment was used in Georgia from the s through the s. The white guards on horseback glared at us as we slowed down our machine, so we went on. On our automobile there was a New York license, and we knew it was dangerous for Northern Negroes to appear too interested in the affairs of the rural South. Even peaceable Negro salesmen had been beaten and mobbed by whites who objected to seeing a neatly dressed colored person speaking decent English and driving his own automobile.
The NAACP collected reports of violence against blacks in this era, including a similar incident in Mississippi in Charles Smith and Myrtle Wilson were dragged from a car, beaten and shot. But that night a strange thing happened. After sundown, in the evening dusk, as we were nearing the city of Savannah, we noticed a dark figure waving at us frantically from the swamps at the side of the road.
We saw that it was a black boy. His words were hurried, as though he were frightened, and his eyes glanced nervously up and down the road. We were startled.
Hughes noted that Pinkney was 15 years old when he was sentenced to the chain gang for striking his wife. I ran away. In his journal, Hughes wrote about meeting an escaped convict named Ed Pinkney near Savannah. I saw you-all was colored and I waved to you.
I thought maybe you would help me. Gradually, before the lights of Savannah came in sight, in answer to our many questions, he told us his story. Picked up for fighting, prison, the chain gang. But not a bad chain gang, he said. Guard-on-convict violence was pervasive on Jim Crow-era chain gangs.
Inmates begged for transfers to less violent camps but requests were rarely granted. Only once the guard had knocked two teeth out. That was all.
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He wanted to see his wife in Atlanta. He had been married only two weeks when they sent him away, and she needed him. He needed her. On June 11, , Ms. ATIC officials went alone and pronounced the death a suicide. But when Ms. Yes, a bullet had shattered her cranium. Yes, photos taken by ATIC showed her lying on her bed, holding a pistol to her temple. But there was no gun residue on her hand.
Her tongue was sticking out, and there was froth around her mouth, signs of asphyxiation. There were two marks under her chin, suggesting she had been strangled by someone expert in cutting off oxygen without leaving bruises. The morgue leaders announced that month that Ms.
Taking a Look at Gang Violence
In August, along with the director of Forensic Medicine, Semma Julissa Villanueva, and another colleague, they petitioned the Honduran government for protection and were assigned police officers to take them to and from work. But they still feel like sitting ducks. Villanueva has been granted a visa to travel to the United States, and Dr. Garcia, who did not respond to a request for comment, has been reassigned to an administrative post pending an investigation into the death, said a spokesman for the Public Ministry in San Pedro Sula.
Nearly 10 months later, no one has been charged.
But Dr. Villanueva says she is afraid, adding that she is certain that Ms. But the truth, as I saw so clearly over a monthlong reporting trip in Honduras, is that migrants are fleeing a society controlled by criminals. President Trump keeps threatening to shut off the southern border to prevent Central Americans from crossing.
This is particularly true of women, who make up a greater proportion of border crossers every year. This latest announcement comes on top of moves by the Trump administration to bar victims of domestic violence from applying for asylum. In June, Jeff Sessions, the attorney general at the time, sought to reverse a Board of Immigration Appeals decision from that added domestic violence to the list of horrors that could qualify someone for asylum.
But the Trump administration has persisted and is appealing the decision.
Timeline of gangs in America Research Paper
According to official statistics, Honduran women were murdered last year slightly fewer than in recent years , in a country with roughly the population of New York City. Unlike in much of the world, where most murdered women are killed by their husbands, partners or family members, half in Honduras are killed by drug cartels and gangs. And the ways they are being killed — shot in the vagina, cut to bits with their parts distributed among various public places, strangled in front of their children, skinned alive — have women running for the border.
Understanding what is going on in Honduras is crucial to understanding, and solving, what is going on at the United States border, where , migrants were stopped in the first five months of fiscal , nearly twice as many as in the same period last year.
Timeline of gangs in America - Words | Research Paper Example
A growing proportion — half — were families with children. Nearly one in three women murdered in Honduras in were killed here. And this city, Choloma, is probably the deadliest. Starting in the s it became a hub for tax-free industrial parks where American, Canadian and Korean textile factories produced products for Hanes, Fruit of the Loom, Nike and Adidas. Women streamed into Choloma for a rare commodity in Honduras — jobs.
It is also a hub for the drug trade; product moves through here on its way from Colombia to the United States. La Rumba has paid for trash pickup there, paved the main street in part to enable faster getaways and bribed the police. It also kills women. She was found dead the next morning, shot in the mouth. Last year, 23 women were murdered in Choloma; some say the toll is a third more.
In , 41 percent of women and girls killed in Honduras showed signs of mutilation, disfigurement and cruelty beyond what was needed to kill them, according to the Violence Observatory at the National Autonomous University of Honduras. Thanks to the contra war, when the United States secretly funded right-wing militia groups in Central America, there are an estimated 1.
And yet one in 10 female murder victims are strangled to death. The sadism is the point. It sends a message — to other women, to rival men — that the killer is all powerful and never to be trifled with. Men, of course, still make up a vast majority of murder victims, largely because they are more likely to be involved in gang conflicts or targeted for recruitment.
Women and girls are also increasingly being recruited by gangs and criminal organizations to sell drugs in Honduras. An estimated two in 10 gang members in the San Pedro Sula area are now female, something unheard-of not long ago. The gangs believe that men are more likely to buy drugs from a flirting woman and that the police are less likely to target her. Others are forced into it. Girls tell Ms. But they are broken anyway. They are killed for not meeting drug sales quotas, for not paying back money they owe to the cartel, for spurning the advances of a criminal or because they are the girlfriends of criminals who tire of them.
Regalado said. Of the women killed in Choloma between and Oct. Katherine Nicolle Bonilla Carranza, just 14 years old, was another victim. Carranza sobbed as she described what happened on Dec. Nicolle had been helping her mother wash clothes. She said she would be back in 10 minutes; she just wanted to chat with her friends at the corner. Carranza told her. She was shot five times in the head right next to the Catholic church down the street, probably by gangsters. So they killed her. Sometimes the deaths have nothing to do with the gangs.
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