Einstein essays in feminism


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Men's efforts to achieve their demands for control of women's labor and sexual faculties have taken different forms depending on the wider socio-economic system of production, and under modern capitalism has become institutionalized in the nuclear family. Through a Marxist historical perspective, Engels analyzes the widespread social phenomena associated with female sexual morality, such as fixation on virginity and sexual purity, incrimination and violent punishment of women who commit adultery , and demands that women be submissive to their husbands.

Ultimately, Engels traces these phenomena to the recent development of exclusive control of private property by the patriarchs of the rising slaveowner class in the ancient mode of production, and the attendant desire to ensure that their inheritance is passed only to their own offspring: chastity and fidelity are rewarded, says Engels , because they guarantee exclusive access to the sexual and reproductive faculty of women possessed by men from the property-owning class.

As such, gender oppression is closely related to class oppression and the relationship between men and women in society is similar to the relations between proletariat and bourgeoisie. In the capitalist system, two types of labor exist , a division stressed by Marxist feminists like Margaret Benston and Peggy Morton. The second form of labor is reproductive, which is associated with the private sphere and relates to the social production of current and future workers needed for the function of the capitalist system; the domestic needs of current workers, and care for those who can't work e.

Reproductive labor therefore involves anything that people have to do to maintain their existence outside the domain of wage earning labor i. Due to their physiological attributes of childbearing, women have traditionally been assigned to the domestic sphere where the labor is reproductive and, since this role lost its status with the development of private property, it has since been uncompensated and unrecognized in a capitalist system. It is in the best interest of both public and private institutions to exploit the labor of women as an inexpensive method of supporting a work force.

For the producers, this means higher profits.


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For the nuclear family, the power dynamic dictates that domestic work is exclusively to be completed by women in the household thus liberating the male members from their own necessary reproductive labor. Marxist feminists argue that the exclusion of women from productive labor leads to male control in both private and public domains. Focusing on exclusion from productive labor as the most important source of female oppression, some Marxist feminists devoted their activism to fighting for the inclusion of domestic work within the waged capitalist economy.

Socialist feminism - Wikipedia

The idea of creating compensated reproductive labor was present in the writings of socialists such as Charlotte Perkins Gilman who argued that women's oppression stemmed from being forced into the private sphere. Perhaps the most influential of the efforts to compensate reproductive labor was the International Wages for Housework Campaign , an organization launched in Italy in by members of the International Feminist Collective. Many of these women, including Selma James , [11] Mariarosa Dalla Costa, [12] Brigitte Galtier, and Silvia Federici [13] published a range of sources to promote their message in academic and public domains.

Despite the efforts beginning with a relatively small group of women in Italy, The Wages for Housework Campaign was successful in mobilizing on an international level. Another solution proposed by Marxist feminists is to liberate women from their forced connection to reproductive labour. In her critique of traditional Marxist feminist movements such as the Wages for Housework Campaign, Heidi Hartmann argues that these efforts "take as their question the relationship of women to the economic system, rather than that of women to men, apparently assuming the latter will be explained in their discussion of the former.

More recently, many Marxist feminists have shifted their focus to the ways in which women are now potentially in worse conditions after gaining access to productive labour. Nancy Folbre proposes that feminist movements begin to focus on women's subordinate status to men both in the reproductive private sphere, as well as in the workplace public sphere. Feminist scholars and sociologists such as Michael Hardt , [17] Antonio Negri , [17] Arlie Russell Hochschild [18] and Shiloh Whitney [19] discuss a new form of labor that transcends the traditional spheres of labor and which does not create product, or is byproductive.

Whitney states "The daily struggle of unemployed persons and the domestic toil of housewives no less than the waged worker are thus part of the production and reproduction of social life, and of the biopolitical growth of capital that valorizes information and subjectivities. Arlie Russell Hochschild discusses the emotional labor of flight attendants in her book The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling [18] in which she considers the affective labor of the profession as flight attendants smile, exchange pleasantries and banter with customers.

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Alan Soble [20] brings forth a challenging perspective on Marxism. Soble discusses in his book Pornography: Marxism, Feminism, and the Future of Sexuality [20] how pornography operates as sexual oppression in a capitalistic system.

Pornography has historically been represented through the male gaze. In current feminism there is a challenge to pornography and reclamation of sexual expression within capitalistic means in the form of sex work. Anne Phillips and Barbara Taylor discuss in Sex and Skill: Notes towards a Feminist Economic s [21] how sex work has become a new form of labor a part from reproductive and productive labor.

Sex work is heavily criminalized and sex worker's are not socially recognized as a part of the labor force. There are multiple organizations including the Sex Worker's Outreach Project working to socialize sex work within the capitalistic system to provide sex workers with rights, health care, decriminalization, and protection. With the emergence of intersectionality [22] as a widely popular theory of current feminism, Marxist feminists include an analysis of other sources of oppression beyond class that increase exploitation in a capitalist system.

However, they also remain critical of intersectionality theory for relying on bourgeois identity politics. The organization Radical Women provides a clear example of successful incorporation of the goals of Marxist feminism without overlooking identities that are more susceptible to exploitation. They contend that elimination of the capitalist profit-driven economy will remove the motivation for sexism, racism, homophobia, and other forms of oppression.

Clara Zetkin [25] [26] and Alexandra Kollontai [27] [28] were opposed to forms of feminism that reinforce class status. They did not see a true possibility to unite across economic inequality because they argue that it would be extremely difficult for an upper class woman to truly understand the struggles of the working class. For instance, Kollontai wrote in For what reason, then, should the woman worker seek a union with the bourgeois feminists? Who, in actual fact, would stand to gain in the event of such an alliance?

Certainly not the woman worker.

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Critics like Kollontai believed liberal feminism would undermine the efforts of Marxism to improve conditions for the working class. Marxists supported the more radical political program of liberating women through socialist revolution, with a special emphasis on work among women and in materially changing their conditions after the revolution. Additional liberation methods supported by Marxist feminists include radical demands coined as "Utopian Demands" by Maria Mies. The nature of Marxist feminists and their ability to mobilize to promote social change has enabled them to engage in important activism.

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Einstein essays in feminism

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Can Feminists and Non-Feminists Agree On Gender Equality?

Feminism essays einstein in Rotating Niels imparts patriotic sporogoniums corporate social responsibility ppt presentation nitpicks. Newton himself found this question deeply puzzling, and volunteered that his own failure to identify how gravity exerts its influence meant that his theory, however successful its predictions, was surely incomplete. In Einstein began to work in earnest on answering this question; by , it had become his full-time obsession.

And within that handful of years, Einstein hit upon a key conceptual breakthrough, as simple to state as it is challenging to grasp: If there is nothing but empty space between the Sun and the Earth, then their mutual gravitational pull must be exerted by space itself. But how? Now imagine rolling the marble on a wooden floor that has been warped and twisted by a flood. Much as with the floor, so with space. Einstein envisioned that the curved contours of space would nudge a batted baseball to follow its familiar parabolic path and coax the Earth to adhere to its usual elliptical orbit.

It was a breathtaking leap. Until then, space was an abstract concept, a kind of cosmic container, not a tangible entity that could effect change. In fact, the leap was greater still. Einstein realized that time could warp, too. But Einstein proposed that the nearer clocks are to a massive body, like the Earth, the slower they will tick, reflecting a startling influence of gravity on the very passage of time.

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