This approach is beneficial and effective. However, it has many drawbacks. First, adults may take the rights of children lightly because many cultures place little value on the rights of children. Secondly, adults may refuse to give children power to participate in decision making because they believe that they know what is god for their children James et al Many adults feel that by giving children power, they encourage them to be disrespectful. The idealistic perspective constructs childhood as a human development stage that is a period of innocence and carefree behaviours.
This perspective stipulates that children should not be given adult responsibilities such as involvement in decision-making processes James Proponents of the idealistic perspective discourage the participation of children in intervention decisions and as such, influence child intervention negatively. Failing to involve children in decision making discourages them from expressing their opinions on matters that are important to them.
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As such, adults make decisions that do not align with the needs and rights of children. Childhood construction is a critical aspect in determining child intervention in the child protection system. Childhood construction takes several approaches depending on how it is understood. Many child interventions are determined by the construction of children as vulnerable, weak and in need of protection. Other constructions view children as valuable human beings who have rights and form the foundation for the future. Some adults consider children as less knowledgeable and unable to determine what is good for themselves.
This results in ineffective child intervention efforts that fail to fully protect children from abuse. To ensure that child interventions are effective, adults should allow children to participate in discussions concerning child intervention, give children freedom to choose what they want, and take time to explain the consequences of the decisions that they make on their behalf. This perspective delegates certain responsibilities to children and others to adults in order to create a balance. The approach encourages children to participate in decision making through expressing their views and opinions.
Efficient childhood construction views children as valuable human beings with rights and in need of protection. Bagnato, Stephen. New York: Guilford Press, New York: Walter de Gruyter, James, Allison and James, Adrian. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, James, Allison.
New York: Routledge, Mason, Jan and Falloon, Jan. Children such the murderers of Jamie Bulger in were children carrying out unthinkable, far from innocent acts. They committed a crime as an adult yet they were still children in need of protection. Society wanted to look at their background to decide if watching horror movies or having divorced parents or poor discipline made them kill a little boy. Fascinatingly the historical view had been to protect children, yet moral panics made society shift to demonising children, branding them as wicked and evil Bracchi, The legislation that had previously sought to protect children had also come into conflict with the boundaries of criminal law, as it does not recognise them as children over ten years of age Molan, It could be argued that criminal law agrees with Aries and children are mini adults, yet social workers guidance refers to children up to the age of seventeen.
One could question how professionals can work together when legislations cannot agree what age a child is.
Further spotlight cases such as Victoria Climbie highlighted failings of multi-agency workers Lamming and facilitated to shape the next change in legislation. These were defined as, stay safe, be healthy, enjoy and achieve, achieve economic wellbeing, and make a positive contribution Knowles, which gave professionals direction on the minimum requirements for every child, and allowed social workers to intervene to meet these needs in child protection practice. Nonetheless, the coalition government in abolished this agenda McDermid, suggesting that families are not as important, even though it has underpinned social work practice for a number of years.
Nevertheless child deaths continued to be a growing problem, the Baby Peter case indicated that individuals are failing children and again multi-agency communication is poor in assessing risk.
Another case that followed approximately a year later was the Edlington boys who tortured two young boys. Society then blamed foster placements and care systems suggesting they do not work and foster placements are as bad as the families they were removed from. Cases such as these developed blame culture, where children were perceived as being failed by the government workers; usually the social workers less often the police and the politicians Community Care, The public outcries and criticisms of social services made social workers practice on the side of caution.
This suggests the romantic concept of childhood i. It appears that each disaster that happens the social construct of children changes. The media and internet evidence how much it has made it available for children to consider adult notions and behaviours, alcohol, sexual activity, drug use and teenage violence that show that differences between adulthood and childhood are disappearing.
Nevertheless it could be debated that contradictory attitudes remain commonplace with children being constructed as innocent little angels and little devils, innately capable of the most awful types of crime until the adults in society influenced them as Rousseau noted. Despite these criticisms the families that children live continue to be judged as secretive with children growing into poor citizens due to not being protected by them. Very often poor families are classed as poor parents and certain constructions take place without the family even being assessed.
To exemplify Tucks identified a connection between all forms of abuse and social deprivation, but a possible explanation is that perpetrators target vulnerable children or women to secure access to children; socially deprived neighbourhoods are characterised by relatively large numbers of lone parents. Through the pressures of their circumstances and in family crisis, parents had become caught up in a child protection system that was more attuned to assessing risk than to bringing out the best in parents struggling in adversity DoH, Indeed professionals hold a variety of opinions towards what constitutes abuse and could be argued that this alone diminishes the identification of risk to a child.
The defensive practice may come from workers who are expected to manage this uncertainty if the issue of abuse and neglect is not clearly labelled.
The idea of protecting children by giving those rights may have been problematic for adults in terms of taking them seriously which arguably could be minimal representation they have had over the years. Additionally adults may be averse to handing over power to their children, because as the early historians suggested, the adult knows what is best for their children. This may have been viewed from the idealistic construction of childhood being a period of innocence where they consider that children should not be concerned with important decision-making and responsibility.
In cases of child abuse, black and ethnic minority children could arguably be at a higher risk, as warning signs that would have been picked up are ignored and accepted to be cultural practices and norms. For instance Rogers, Hevey and Ash state that the beating of West Indian children can be viewed as traditional use of chastisement within that culture, rather than observed as physical abuse of children.
Conversely Munro considers Effective Child Protection and points out the significance on the value of relationships between families and the worker and suggests this leads to better outcomes by understanding the families and cultures. An effective assessment and intervention in child protection draws from having good interactions and aids parents to disclose information and collaborate with authorities.
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Returning to this formative moment shines a bright light on the authority of modern science, including its method. I n or about March , scientific method changed. This is the modern scientific method.
The historian John Rudolph has shown how, in the wake of How We Think , these steps were adapted by science-textbook authors as a convenient summary of the work expected of scientists and students. It was convenient shorthand. Previously, authors presenting the scientific method had leaned on the dense writings of John Stuart Mill, William Whewell, and other 19th-century logicians. Dewey gave them a much more economical account that they could now simply insert into their books. The story would be pretty simple if it stopped there. Author publishes book, others find it useful, book influences how people have thought about science ever since.
He had called it How We Think. He meant the much quoted paragraph, and the book, to describe ordinary thinking — the way people go about solving the problems of everyday life. In one, he describes how you might calculate the fastest way to get across town for a meeting. Another example is about doing the dishes.
How We Think was aimed at teachers and others who needed to routinely predict and guide thinking processes of all sorts. Dewey himself was something of an expert at this routine, having founded and, for 10 years, directed the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago. The Lab School, as it was and is known, was a major site of what would come to be called the progressive education movement.
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While Dewey had moved to Columbia University in New York City by the time How We Think was published, the book was in many ways the product of lessons he had learned from working with teachers and students at the Lab School from its founding in until his departure in Schools were to philosophy as laboratories were to physics: controlled sites for the generation of knowledge.
Specifically, they learn by experimenting.
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At the Lab School, this meant that children, from a young age, did laboratory-style work across a range of subjects. They did chemistry by working in the kitchen; botany was learned by growing plants in the garden. To them, every act of learning was seen as experimental in an important sense.
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Teachers also experimented at the Lab School. Dewey saw student and teacher experiments as two sides of the same coin. Kids learned by experimenting, teachers taught by experimenting, and Dewey philosophised by experimenting. The promise of such a school helped lure him away from the University of Michigan.
Arriving in Chicago ahead of his family in the fall of , he needed to find a school for his own children. This concrete need eventually grew into the Lab School.
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