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Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. Editor: Eberhard Bons. This book contributes to the study of Hosea "For what I desire is love and not sacrifice, and I prefer knowledge of God to burnt offerings" and its reception in ancient Jewish and Christian writings. Some of the articles contained in this book address the verse itself and the use made of it in the Sibylline Oracles, Gospel of Matthew, rabbinic writings, and patristic literature.
Other articles deal with the notion of sacrifice in Philo and with the notion of mercy in the Septuagint, the Gospel of Luke, and Greek literature. The Hebrew University Bible. The Book of Isaiah, Volume 2 Chapters Editor: Goshen-Gottstein. Editors: Hindy Najman and Judith Newman. The latter dominates as the ruthless Richard, who never cried once in his life, as he himself boasts, is anxious to pose now as a man of feeling suddenly transformed by Anne's beauty.
Richard III Theme of Power
This is for him the occasion to exploit a much worn conceit of Petrarchan love poetry which the oxymoron "living death"  seems to evoke : the murderous power of the Lady's eyes. This both original and conventional wooing scene is fraught with irony for it reveals Richard's egocentrism: indeed he who could not shed a tear even for his own father's death is now weeping on his own fate. A subtle form of irony too for after all songs of complaint and lamentation also belong to the stock-in-trade of Petrarchan sonneteering. Intensive rhyming would not have been appropriate for a mock love scene, in which deceit, hypocrisy and cynicism lead the game, a passage more dramatic and rhetoric than poetic, reaching a climax with Richard's offering of his life, a masterpiece of Machiavellian strategy.
So nothing really distinguishes this long passage from the others. This long passage opens on the famous couplet "Was ever.
Altogether a well-patterned speech in which rhyme remains unobtrusive, despite the final quatrain which is also a tribute paid to convention rhymed scene endings. The situation calls for no special elaboration in this passage where Richard gives instructions to his accomplice. This is the public speech of a future king and we would normally expect elaboration, and we get it although Richard, stooping a second time the better to conquer, is playing low profile in a self-degrading portrait of himself a variant of the rhetorical device known as humiliatio or tapinosis.
But the patterning owes more to diction vocabulary and syntax than to rhyming. As the occasion demands, the diction is elevated and dignified: long sentences Richard's style is usually curt , choice vocabulary and latinisms "depart in silence, reproof, reprove, incur, Definitively, desert, unmeritable, revenue and due" , inversions , with enjamb- ment , balanced phrasing , , generating a consonantal rhyme on two lexical partners, "first" and "last" , compound adjective "Tongue-tied"  , images "golden yoke" [, , ] and the rather gaudy horticultural metaphor of What Richard's words seem to deny, Richard's rhyme proclaims.
If this reading holds good, this passage is a good example of a subtle exploitation of rhyme to support the sense, ironically deconstructing Richard's argument while summing up his intimate designs. The coda to this speech 3. This is Richard's second wooing scene but the situation is quite different from the first one with Anne and the wooing is much longer. However Richard's two speeches devoted to it total about the same number of lines as in the first case, with the difference that they are both dialogues whereas in the first scene, the second speech was a long soliloquy addressed to the audience.
The content of the speech is also very different: the rhetoric of persuasion does not appeal so much to Elizabeth's vanity as to her reason. The very first line gives the tone, which is essentially argumentative: "Look what is done cannot be now amended. Richard then proceeds to play the perfect sophist, proposing a sort of commercial transaction supposed to settle all accounts But Elizabeth is not as easily "won" as Anne and Richard's feat of eloquence triggers a sticho- mythic exchange so that Richard needs a second feat to achieve his goal: Changing tactics, he waxes lyrical, protesting his sincerity and calling upon his head divine justice and presumably death, thus resorting to the tactics which proved successful with Anne.
This is too much for Elizabeth who finally surrenders.
This is a far cry from both the character that we have seen and the voice that we have heard so far. For the first time, Richard discovers fear, if not remorse. The passage is highly emotional and the diction broken by exclamations and questions.
He who spoke but lately in rapid assertive statements now discovers the full force of two other modalities of language which he had little used before. Ironically the king is now subject to himself, chained like a captive by his own conscience and the language reflects the ineluctability of his destiny through the felicitous use of concatenatio "tongues.
And every tongue. The main theme of the passage being the vicious circle of self- imprisonment, no wonder that "me" and its grammatical derivation "myself," and "I," recur obsessively in strategic positions within and at the end of lines.
And no wonder either that this is the passage where rhyme shines most, ironically at the very moment when Richard's sun is about to set. The majority of them occur at line ends, sometimes strongly concentrated:. Furthermore, Richard's despair and vehemence generate a series of epizeuxes "Perjury, perjury.
Guilty, guilty" arranged in progressive order leading to the rhyme position miming perhaps the witnesses' progress to the bar and a quatrain including three identical rhymes on "degree" like a triple curse, again. Moreover, it is not without interest to observe that the quatrain is followed by the couplet on "me," thus producing the longest pattern of identical rhyming in the play.
Also, the triplet on "degree" draws attention to the main theme in the Tudor myth if there is such a thing , later on immortalised by Ulysses's famous speech in Troilus and Cressida 1. It would probably have been wiser for him to let "me" rhyme with "me," as in Richard's oration follows hard upon Richmond's , 34 lines and the proximity, the similarity of situation and some verbal echoes invite comparison or rather contrast. They succeed and reflect the two passages describing the King's and Richmond's moods on the eve of battle: restlessness and irritability for Richard, calm, self-confidence and trust in God for Richmond who can pray, contrary to Richard Indeed the two speeches differ greatly in content and style.
Dignity,, restraint, balance and controlled energy in the former; as against rage, invective, colloquial speech "milksop. Bobb'd and thump'd. Richmond's oration six lines longer than Richard's is essentially structured by an introduction opposing God's cause and power to Richard's, followed by a portrait of the tyrant, then by a series of argumentative couplets in parallel statements based on anaphora "If you do Richard's oration: 5.
Perhaps, this absence of rhyme and the interruption of Richard's oration by the noise of battle are symbolic of chaos and disorder in his mind. This being said, and more generally speaking, in the play's heroic passages Shakespeare is never really dependent on rhyme for his effects except for the brief passage of 4.
He seems to rely more on the choice of vocabulary, images and rhythm. The same remark applies to poetic passages in the play, mostly songs of grief and mourning, including Clarence's dream 4 or his brother's lamentation on hearing of his death 2. Rhyme and stichomythia. Strictly speaking, stichomythia, expressing tension and conflict, is based on alternate single lines and verbal echoes.
But at times, Shakespeare extends the stichomythic verbal parrying into a small speech, as if he were seeking to integrate the conventional device with ordinary dialogue and vary the form, shifting from the "keen encounter of Stichomythia, mostly based on random verbal repetition, is not normally end-rhymed, the device favouring rather the use of internal identical or derived rhymes.
It is used in two cases:. In Richard HI, stichomythia is used especially in the two wooing scenes. This first stichomythia is particularly elaborate, mixing distant or successive true and derived rhymes, either in single or shared speeches. The stichomythia is interrupted by Richard's long wooing speech to return at the end in a new and strict form: no rhyming but brief and quick series of half-pentameters. The parallel with the first wooing scene has been noted by all critics, though the issue is different since Richard is in fact wooing the Queen for her daughter. We note the same alternation between long dialogue and stichomythia.
The latter structures the scene, appearing in the prologue, in the main plea and in the epilogue, and marking the various contrasting stages of this dramatic dialogue. Moreover, it is marked at the end by an innovation: the stichomythia is broken by Elizabeth's interruptions as the Queen grows impatient and resists Richard's rhetoric.
To conclude on stichomythia: Richard HI mixes strict and loose stichomythia, which suggests that Shakespeare was concerned with varying the device and integrating it more closely into conversation, an aspect of the development of his dramatic language. At the same time, and perhaps paradoxically, terminal rhyme especially identical, derived and semantic remains an important element in stichomythia. A few other remarkable examples of patterning. The Duchess's parting words to Dorset, Anne and Elizabeth, are delivered in very ritualistic form, combining a series of three successive symploces: "Go thou.
It is almost entirely rhymed combining couplet and enclosed rhymes. The patterning is somewhat masked by the fact that most lines except for the last two form isolated semantic units. The anathema, a ritualistic type of speech and even a literary genre generates a series of rhymes: distant echoes at the beginning "ordinance. Altogether, the Duchess, Richard's mother, is the character who rhymes most consistently.
The end of the same scene 4. Other patterns could, no doubt, be found, but exhaustive analysis would be trying for the reader. Rhyme in Richard III, both in a narrow and a broad sense is probably more abundant than is usually acknowledged, which is not really surprising in a highly formal and rhetorical play. Shakespeare used all types of rhyme and only a careful statistical analysis could decide which dominates if any.
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